17 August 2009

COMPU. CHAPTER 1

DISCLAIMER : The Informtion I'm Giving in this chapter is Correct to the Best of My Knowledge...Any Mistakes That May Have Crept-in Are to Be Tolerated or to be informed to the author i mean the administrator.

: NOTE :

THIS SOCIAL SERVICE WILL BE CONTINUED SUBJECT TO CONDITION I GET ATLEAST 5 RESPONSES FROM 5 DIFFERENT PEOPLE...



HI,

From today we will start a virtual classroom for the subject computers.....ok?

Me, Revappa, will go on giving/presenting u the details of the material i've, for Computer Subject...

Let's Directly Jump to The Syllabus....



CHAPTER 1 - COMPUTER CONCEPTS



A Computer is A An Electronic Device That Is Used for information processing. It Accepts The Data And Instructions, Stores it in its memory, processes & Gives the results to the user.



Parts of A Computer :

Before Jumping on the Parts PART :
Let's Know The Functional Units Of A Computer :

1.Input Unit -
  • It's An External Device Connected to The CPU.
  • It's Used To Feed Data & instructions
  • Commonly used iNPUT UNITs are

  • keyBoard
  • Mouse
  • Joystick
  • LightPen
  • trackball
  • Optical scanner
  • Digitize
  • Voice input ( Microphone)
  • Disks (CDs/DVDs)


2.system Unit -
  • Once d Data & Instructions r Recieved They r Stored & Processed In This Unit
  • It has 2 Parts : CPU & Memory Unit
1.CPU
  • Central Processing Unit
  • Heart & Brain of Computer
  • It has 2 Parts :
  1. Control Unit
  2. Arithmetic & Logic Unit
Control Unit Acts As A Supervisor. It Sends CONTROL & TIMING SIGNALS to various units to coordinate for the specific operation. It's Duties Are
  • fetching Data & Instruction from The Main Memory
  • Interpretting These Instructions
  • Controlling the TRANSFER of data & information TO & FROM the main memory.
  • Controlling Input & OutPut Devices.
  • The Overall supervision of Computer System.
ALU - Arithmetic & Logic Unit consists of An electronic Circuitrywhich performs A basic Operation Such As Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication & division. And the logical circuitry performs the logical operations which result in the TRU or FALSE Results.

To Put The Functioning of These Two Units in Terms of Analogy :

ALU acts as an ACCOUNTANT while the CU acts as A PERSONAL SECRETARY.


2.
Memory Unit :
  • This is A Storage Device
  • The Memory of A Computer is Measured in terms of BITS, BYTES & WORDS.
  1. a BIT is a binary digit & is either a 0(zero) or 1(one).
  2. a BYTE is a basic unit of memory & is defined as a sequence of 8 BITS.
  3. a WORD can be defined as a sequence of 16 BITS or 2 BYTES.
and
  • Computer Memory is classified into :
  1. Main Memory
  2. Secondary Memory
  3. Cache Memory
Main memory is A Temporary Memory Because the data & instructions stored here are erased when the power goes off. This is also referred to as primary memory ( because any DATA or Instruction Given, will be store din this memory ). It's a Semiconductor Memory. It consists of RAM & ROM main memories.
  • RAM ( Random Access Memory )
  • ROM ( Read Only Memory )
  • PROM ( Programmable ROM )
  • EPROM ( Erasable PROM )
  • EEPROM ( Electrcally EPROM )

Secondary Memory is a Permanent Memory. It is also called BACKUP MEMORY or an AUXILLORY MEMORY. It's made up of magnetic material/ flash material.
  • Magnetic Tape
  • Magnetic Disk
  • Magnetic Drum
  • Optical Disk
  • Flash memory
Cache memory is The High Speed memory & Placed between The CPU & the Main memory. The Data & instructions Stored in In It Are Accessed At A Higher speed As Compared to The MAin memory. It stores Data & Instructions That R Currently To Be Executed. Access Time Allotted is 15-25 nano seconds compared to the main memory time of 80 ns.

3.Output Unit -
  • This is Used to Display the Results obtained after the execution of a program.
  • Whenever the user wants output from the computer, the control unit sends signal to this unit to BE READY to accept the data from memory & to Display it.
  • Commonly used Display Unit is MONITOR. & Some others Are :

  • Printer
  • Plotter
  • Plasma Diplay Panel
  • LCD / TFT / LED Displays
  • Voice Output ( speaker)
  • Disks ( CDs/DVDs)

  • ok...Back To The Syllabus.

    : Parts of A Computer, Peripherals & Their Function :



    STORAGE : STORAGE : STORAGE : STORAGE : STORAGE



    1. RAM / ROM

    2. HARD DISK

    [ NEW IN THE MARKET is
    SOLID STATE DRIVE replacing the HDD]

    3. EXTERNAL STORAGE

    [ FLOPPYs /
    CDs /
    DVDs /
    BLURAYs /
    PENDRIVEs /
    Portable HARD DISKs /
    MEMORYCARDS... ]


    PROCESSOR :PROCESSOR :PROCESSOR :PROCESSOR :




    DISPLAY :
    DISPLAY :DISPLAY :DISPLAY :DISPLAY :


    MOUSE :
    MOUSE :MOUSE :MOUSE :MOUSE :MOUSE :MOUSE


    SCROLLBALL

    OPTICAL




    PORTS :
    PORTS :PORTS :PORTS :PORTS :PORTS :PORTS


    PORT


    CD DRIVE :CD DRIVE :CD DRIVE :CD DRIVE :CD DRIVE

    CD DRIVE


    PRINTER :PRINTER :PRINTER :PRINTER :PRINTER :

    PRINTER


    SCANNER :SCANNER :SCANNER :SCANNER :SCANNER :

    SCANNER



    .....To Be Continued.


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